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 文章标题 : 诺斯替主义
帖子发表于 : 2007年 10月 4日 周四 1:26 pm 
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Gnosticism, is a philosophical and religious movement prominent in the Greco-Roman world in the 2nd century AD.
诺斯替主义,是公元二世纪希腊―罗马内的一个显著的哲学和宗教运动。



While Gnosticism drew from and influenced in turn many traditional religions, its effect was most clearly felt on nascent Christianity, in which it led to the formation of the canon, creed, and episcopal organization.
当诺斯替教出现,并且依次影响着很多传统宗教的时候,它的效果在初期的基督教清晰地表现出来,引领着正规经典,教条,主教制度的形成,



The designation Gnosticism, derived from the Greek gnostikos (one who has gnosis, or "secret knowledge"), is a term of modern scholarship. Evidence for the Gnostic phenomenon, found in the Church Fathers who opposed Gnostic teachings (Irenaeus, c. 185; Hippolytus, c. 230; Epiphanius, c. 375) and in the Gnostic writings themselves, reveals a diversity in theology, ethics, and ritual that defies strict classification.
诺斯替主义的名称,源自希望的灵智派(拥有灵知,或者“秘密知识”),是一个现代的学术用语。灵知现象的证据,发现在反对诺斯替派的教导的教父里面(Irenaeus, c. 185; Hippolytus, c. 230; Epiphanius, c. 375),在诺斯替派文献本身里面,展示出神学,道德规范和典礼的差异,对严格的阶级制度的反抗。



Yet Gnostic sects appear to have shared an emphasis on the redemptive power of esoteric knowledge, acquired not by learning or empirical observation but by divine revelation.
至今诺斯替派的出现是共享一种深奥知识的救赎,并不是被后天知识或经验主义的观察而得到,而是由神的启示。



History
历史
The origins of the Gnostic world view have been sought by scholars in the dualism of Iranian religion, the allegorical Idealism of the Middle Platonic philosophers, and the apocalypticism of certain Jewish mystics.
诺斯替世界的起源可以从波斯宗教的二元论学者找到,寓言般的中期柏拉图哲学的理想主义和犹太宗教的启示论。



There are analogies also with Egyptian and Mesopotamian thought. It was only with the rise of Christianity, however, that Gnostic syncretism came to full expression.
类似的也发现在埃及人和美索不达米亚人的思想里,它开始了基督教的兴起,然而,灵知的汇合进入了一种完全的表达上。



The first Gnostic about whom something can be said with confidence is Simon Magus, a 1st-century Jewish heterodox teacher who introduced the fundamental Gnostic conception that evil resulted from a break within the Godhead.
最初的诺斯替派也可以说是在Simon Magus的信心里,这位一世纪的犹太异端教师介绍了诺斯替派的基本概念,魔鬼是由神的头里的一种突变而产生。



But Simon's gnosis remained essentially Jewish and monotheistic, as did that of the Gnostic circles to which later parts of the New Testament allude.
但是,西蒙的诺斯替主义本质上保留着犹太教和一神论的元素,诺斯替的盘绕也映射在新旧的后期部分。



The dualistic phase was reached after the expansion of Gnosticism into the Hellenistic world and under the influence of Platonic philosophy, from which was borrowed the doctrine that a lower demiurge was responsible for the creation of this world.
在柏拉图哲学的影响下,二元论的定相是力求把诺斯替主义扩张进希腊化的世界,是从一个较低层的造物主负责创世这个教条借鉴而来的。



This teaching is to be found in the Apocryphon of John (early 2nd century) and other documents of popular gnosis discovered near Naj' Hammadi in upper Egypt in the 1940s and in the Pistis Sophia, a 3rd-century Gnostic work in Coptic belonging to the same school.
这种教导发现在《约翰的启示》(公元二世纪初)和其他四十年代发现在上埃及的纳哈马地文库的通俗诺斯替文献,还有《比提丝*索菲娅》,一本第三世纪的诺斯替派作品,也是属于同一间学校上。



The learned gnosis of Valentinus, Basilides, and their schools presupposes this popular gnosis, which, however, has been thoroughly Hellenized and Christianized and sometimes comes very near to the views of Middle Platonism.
有学问的亚伦丁,巴兹尔诺斯替派,他们的学校预示着这种通俗的诺斯替(灵知),然而,通过希腊化和基督教化,有时候变成了十分接近中期柏拉图主义的观点。



Eastern Gnosticism took a somewhat different course. Under the influence of traditional Iranian religion, the semi-Gnostic Manichaeism developed an absolute cosmic dualism between soul and matter.
东方的诺斯替派有些不同的实践。在伊朗传统宗教的影响下,半诺斯替主义的摩尼教发展了一种绝对的宇宙二元论,是灵魂与物质。



Moreover, it showed the enormous influence of Syrian asceticism, but it was equally rooted in popular Gnosticism and preserved its essential doctrines.
此外,也表明了受到叙利亚人禁欲主义的庞大影响,但这是与流行的诺斯替主义有同等的根源,保留了它本质上的教条。



Nature
本性



In the Gnostic view, the unconscious self of man is consubstantial with the Godhead, but because of a tragic fall it is thrown into a world that is completely alien to its real being.
在诺斯替的观点里,无意识的人本身是与神的头是同质的,但是一个悲惨的堕落,因此掉进一个完成地与真实存在完全相异的一个世界上。



Through revelation from above, man becomes conscious of his origin, essence, and transcedent destiny. Gnostic revelation is to be distinguished both from philosophical enlightenment, because it cannot be acquired by the forces of reason, and from Christian revelation, because it is not rooted in history and transmitted by Scripture.
从上面的启示,人变得观察到他的起源,本质和对命运的转变。诺斯替的启示不同与哲学的教化,因为它不能用强迫的理由和基督教的启示获得,因为它并不植根于历史和由文稿传播。



It is rather the intuition of the mystery of the self.
这相当于神秘事物的直觉知识。



The world, produced from evil matter and possessed by evil demons, cannot be a creation of a good God; it is mostly conceived of as an illusion, or an abortion, dominated by Yahweh, the Jewish demiurge, whose creation and history are depreciated.
世界,由邪恶的物质而来,被邪恶的魔鬼着魔,不能是由一个好的神创造的,主要地是由一种幻想或者失败而想象而来的,受控制于耶和华,犹太人的造物主,它的创造和历史被贬低。



This world is therefore alien to God, who is for the Gnostics depth and silence, beyond any name or predicate, the absolute, the source of good spirits who together form the pleroma, or realm of light.
因此这个世界与神相异,由于诺斯替派的深奥和沉默,在任何名字或断言之上,绝对,好的灵魂的源头连同着佩雷若玛(pleroma)或者光之王国。



These conceptions are expressed in various myths, which employ material from many traditional religions but serve to express a basic experience that is new, the discovery of the unconscious self or spirit in man which sleeps in him until awakened by the Saviour.
这些概念被描述在不同的神话里,从很多传统宗教上借用题材,但用作表述一种新的经历,对无意识或沉睡着的人之灵魂的发现,直到由救世主唤醒为止。



The Gnostic sects of the 2nd century made use of Hebrew and Christian religious writings, employing the allegorical method to extricate Gnostic meanings from them.
二世纪的诺斯替派使用希伯莱和基督宗教的作品,使用讽喻的方式去从它们那里散发出诺斯替的意义。



Most Gnostic groups seem to have been organized as schools, in which the authoritative teaching was transmitted, interpreted, and kept secret.
大多数诺斯替派团体看来都是以学校的形式组织起来,权威的教导被传送,解释和保持秘密。



There was wide disagreement among groups as to the importance of rites, with some practicing quasi-Christian Eucharists and baptisms and others rejecting all aspects of conventional worship, including prayer, fasting, and almsgiving.
团体中间有广泛的争议,比如仪式的重要性,还有一些类似的基督教圣餐和洗礼,其他的反对所有崇拜的惯例,包括祷告,禁食和救济。



Notions of ethics likewise varied widely.
道德规范的观念同样也是广泛地各有不同的。



Influence
影响



The development of Christian doctrine was to a large extent a reaction against Gnosticism. The formulation of creedal symbols, the canonization of the New Testament Scriptures, and the emphasis on episcopal authority all were made necessary by the Gnostics' claims.
基督教教义的发展很大程度上是反对诺斯替派的反应。明确表达的教义象征,对新约文稿的确认和强调主教制度的权威,所有一切都是由诺斯替派的主张而产生的需求。



Moreover, in some measure the Gnostics were the first theologians, and their systems prompted the systemization of early Christian thought.
此外,在某种程度上,诺斯替派是最先的神学,他们的体系鼓动了早期基督教思想的系统化。



In addition, they kept alive the great issues of freedom, redemption, and grace, which for a time lost their emphasis among Christian writers. In a later period, the theology of Augustine owed a great deal to his early experience as a Manichaean.
此外,他们对自由,拯救和优雅等重大议题的活跃,在一段时间里在基督教作者中失去了他们的注意。在后期的时期,奥古斯丁把他的神学思想归咎于早期作为一个摩尼教徒的经历。



- Encyclopedia Britannica
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 文章标题 :
帖子发表于 : 2007年 10月 4日 周四 4:31 pm 
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注册: 2006年 6月 10日 周六 9:20 pm
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我作了一些校对和修饰(划线部分),希望能增进对该文的理解。 :D

Gnosticism, is a philosophical and religious movement prominent in the Greco-Roman world in the 2nd century AD.
诺斯替主义,是公元二世纪希腊―罗马的一个杰出的哲学和宗教运动。



While Gnosticism drew from and influenced in turn many traditional religions, its effect was most clearly felt on nascent Christianity, in which it led to the formation of the canon, creed, and episcopal organization.
当诺斯替教出现,并且依次影响着很多传统宗教的时候,它的效果在初期的基督教清晰地表现出来,引领着正规经典,教条,主教制度的形成,



The designation Gnosticism, derived from the Greek gnostikos (one who has gnosis, or "secret knowledge"), is a term of modern scholarship. Evidence for the Gnostic phenomenon, found in the Church Fathers who opposed Gnostic teachings (Irenaeus, c. 185; Hippolytus, c. 230; Epiphanius, c. 375) and in the Gnostic writings themselves, reveals a diversity in theology, ethics, and ritual that defies strict classification.
诺斯替主义的名称,源自希腊的灵智派(拥有灵知,或者“秘密知识”),是一个现代的学术用语。灵知现象的证据,在反对诺斯替派的教导的教父里面(Irenaeus, c. 185; Hippolytus, c. 230; Epiphanius, c. 375),和诺斯替派文献本身里面被发现,展示出神学,道德规范和仪轨的差异,和对严格的阶级制度的反抗。



Yet Gnostic sects appear to have shared an emphasis on the redemptive power of esoteric knowledge, acquired not by learning or empirical observation but by divine revelation.
至今诺斯替派的出现是共享一种深奥知识的救赎,并不是被后天知识或经验主义的观察而得到,而是经由神的启示。



History
历史
The origins of the Gnostic world view have been sought by scholars in the dualism of Iranian religion, the allegorical Idealism of the Middle Platonic philosophers, and the apocalypticism of certain Jewish mystics.
诺斯替世界的起源可以从波斯宗教的二元论学者那里找到,寓言般的中期柏拉图哲学的理想主义和犹太宗教的启示论。



There are analogies also with Egyptian and Mesopotamian thought. It was only with the rise of Christianity, however, that Gnostic syncretism came to full expression.
类似的思想也在埃及人和美索不达米亚人的思想里被发现。然而,直到基督教的兴起,诺斯替思想在那里的融汇才得以完全的表达出来



The first Gnostic about whom something can be said with confidence is Simon Magus, a 1st-century Jewish heterodox teacher who introduced the fundamental Gnostic conception that evil resulted from a break within the Godhead.
关于最初的诺斯替派可以自信地说点什么的是Simon Magus,这位一世纪的犹太异端教师介绍了诺斯替派的基本概念,说魔鬼是由神性中的一种突变而产生。



But Simon's gnosis remained essentially Jewish and monotheistic, as did that of the Gnostic circles to which later parts of the New Testament allude.
但是,Simon的诺斯替主义本质上保留着犹太教和一神论的本质正如新约的稍后部分对诺斯替圈内的暗示那样



The dualistic phase was reached after the expansion of Gnosticism into the Hellenistic world and under the influence of Platonic philosophy, from which was borrowed the doctrine that a lower demiurge was responsible for the creation of this world.
在柏拉图哲学的影响下,二元论的层面是力求把诺斯替主义扩张进希腊化的世界,是从一个较低层的造物主负责创世这个教条借鉴而来的。



This teaching is to be found in the Apocryphon of John (early 2nd century) and other documents of popular gnosis discovered near Naj' Hammadi in upper Egypt in the 1940s and in the Pistis Sophia, a 3rd-century Gnostic work in Coptic belonging to the same school.
这种教导发现在《约翰的启示》(公元二世纪初)和其他四十年代发现在上埃及的纳哈马地文库的通俗诺斯替文献,还有《比提丝*索菲娅》,一本第三世纪的诺斯替派作品,也是属于同一个学派上。



The learned gnosis of Valentinus, Basilides, and their schools presupposes this popular gnosis, which, however, has been thoroughly Hellenized and Christianized and sometimes comes very near to the views of Middle Platonism.
然而,博学的亚伦丁,巴兹尔诺斯替派,他们的学派预料这种通俗的诺斯替(灵知),已经彻底的希腊化和基督教化,有时已变成十分接近中期柏拉图主义的观点。



Eastern Gnosticism took a somewhat different course. Under the influence of traditional Iranian religion, the semi-Gnostic Manichaeism developed an absolute cosmic dualism between soul and matter.
东方的诺斯替主义有些不同的实践。在伊朗传统宗教的影响下,半诺斯替主义的摩尼教发展了一种绝对的宇宙二元(灵魂与物质论)



Moreover, it showed the enormous influence of Syrian asceticism, but it was equally rooted in popular Gnosticism and preserved its essential doctrines.
此外,这也表明诺斯替受到叙利亚人禁欲主义的庞大影响,但这是与流行的诺斯替主义有同等的根源,保留了它本质上的教义



Nature
本性



In the Gnostic view, the unconscious self of man is consubstantial with the Godhead, but because of a tragic fall it is thrown into a world that is completely alien to its real being.
在诺斯替的观点里,无意识的人本身是与神性是同质的,但是由于人类悲惨的堕落,人类被抛入一个与其真实本性完全相异的一个世界上



Through revelation from above, man becomes conscious of his origin, essence, and transcedent destiny. Gnostic revelation is to be distinguished both from philosophical enlightenment, because it cannot be acquired by the forces of reason, and from Christian revelation, because it is not rooted in history and transmitted by Scripture.
从上面的启示,人开始意识到其起源、本质和对命运的超越。诺斯替的启示不同与哲学的教化,因为它不能用强迫的理由和基督教的启示获得,因为它并不植根于历史和由经典传播。



It is rather the intuition of the mystery of the self.
这更是对自我奥秘的一种直觉



The world, produced from evil matter and possessed by evil demons, cannot be a creation of a good God; it is mostly conceived of as an illusion, or an abortion, dominated by Yahweh, the Jewish demiurge, whose creation and history are depreciated.
世界由邪恶的物质而来,被邪恶的魔鬼占据,不能是由一个善良的神创造的,它主要是由一种幻想或者失败而构成的,受控制于耶和华,犹太人的造物主,它的创造和历史被贬低。



This world is therefore alien to God, who is for the Gnostics depth and silence, beyond any name or predicate, the absolute, the source of good spirits who together form the pleroma, or realm of light.
因此这个世界与神相异,由于诺斯替派的深奥和沉默,神超乎任何名字或称谓,[u]无论是叫


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帖子发表于 : 2007年 10月 22日 周一 9:32 am 
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诺斯替派以及波斯等各宗教标记的大毒蛇,称为Ouroboros,头部黑暗,在寻找光明,而且自己的头咬自己的尾巴。它的头部黑色,尾部白色,代表维系着的极性。当时曾经有人把大毒蛇作为宇宙的模型,诺斯替就是找到内在的光明,去除黑暗。像南传佛教一样,诺斯替派也把大毒蛇解释成无明,不排除是受过原始佛教的影响,而且很多宗教都有这个标记。
见:http://www.crystalinks.com/ouroboros.html

有关介绍容格的主页也有这条蛇出现,而且还有“拉”的眼睛的金字塔:
http://www.crystalinks.com/jung.html


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