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 文章标题 : Shiva Sutra
帖子发表于 : 2016年 11月 10日 周四 9:14 pm 
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1. caitanyamātmā

The independent state of supreme consciousness is the reality of everything.



In this verse, the word ātmā means “the reality of everything.” Supreme consciousness, “caitanyam,” is the reality of everything. Why? Because the one who has not come into consciousness does not exist at all. The act of consciousness is the same in the conscious and the unconscious. For the one who is conscious, the act of consciousness is there. For the one who is not conscious of the act of consciousness, it is also there in the background.
So, the conscious being is the being who makes others conscious. This being is independent in all knowledge and every action. Such a reality is called caitanya, which means “complete independence.” All knowledge and all action are united in one consciousness—completely independent God consciousness. Only Paramaśiva possesses this completely independent God consciousness.
From earth to Anāśrita Śiva4 all beings are dependent on the conscious being, Śiva. Although the complete, independent state of Śiva possesses many divine aspects—such as being eternal, all-pervading, completely full and all-knowing—these divine aspects are not unique to Śiva. They could also be found in other beings. The singularly unique aspect of Lord Śiva is complete independence, svātantrya. This complete independence is not found anywhere except in the state of Lord Śiva.
In this sūtra, the state of complete independence is indicated and accomplished through the use of the word caitanya. On the other hand, the author would use the word cetanā5 if he were to declare that other aspects, in addition to the aspect of complete independence (svātantrya), also existed in the state of Lord Śiva. But only one aspect exists and that is svātantrya. The other aspects, such as being all-pervading, completely full, filled with bliss, etc., do not exist. It is only this one aspect, svātantrya, that is revealed by the word caitanya. This indicates that the word caitanya means “the independent state of consciousness.”
The independent state of consciousness is the self. It is the self of everything, because whatever exists in the world is the state of Lord Śiva. So Lord Śiva is found everywhere.
We have already seen that different aspects of Lord Śiva do not exist at all. Now I will show you why these “different aspects” are to be excluded from those of Lord Śiva. If, for the moment, we accept that different aspects of Lord Śiva do exist, then we must ask the question: Are these aspects filled with svātantrya? If they are not filled with svātantrya, then they are insentient (jaḍa) and without consciousness (anātmā). If, however, the aspects are also filled with the independent consciousness of Lord Śiva, then why not just accept independent consciousness? Why postulate those independent aspects at all?
And, at the same time, if the state of God consciousness exists in the fullness of independence, and if time, space, and form are separate from the independent state of consciousness, then they would not exist at all. Time would not exist, space would not exist, and form would not exist. If, however, we accept these aspects, thinking that he is eternal, timeless, and the cause of the universe, then if they are accepted as independent, they are filled with consciousness. If, however, they are not independent, then they have been carried away from God consciousness and they cannot exist at all in the state of Lord Śiva.
Now, if all individual beings are filled with consciousness, then where is the difference in these beings? There can be no difference. So, all individual beings are one universal being.
Let us examine the theory of the malas, the veils of ignorance. Where does this ignorance exist? How can we say that ignorance exists? If ignorance is removed from God consciousness, it does not exist at all. So where does it exist? If ignorance is filled with the independent state of God consciousness, then it is not ignorance at all, but fullness of God consciousness. So ignorance cannot be found. Then what is it that remains? What is left? There is only independent supreme God consciousness—which is the reality of the self.
What if, for the time being, we were to say that the veil of ignorance exists before you are realized, and that afterwards, when you are realized, it does not exist? Then, if ignorance does not exist after realization, it is the truth that it did not exist at all. Why? Because at the time of realization, the aspirant realizes and knows that ignorance does not exist at all. So that ignorance never exists. Whatever he called ignorance existed, but it was not actually ignorance; it was really non-fullness of knowledge.
Kṣemarāja talks about those aspirants who are on the path, who meditate day and night, and do not achieve anything. He says these aspirants are the same as ignorant people. This is not the real state of Śiva. The real state of Śiva is full realization. When full realization takes place, that is the fullness—the reality—of independent God consciousness. Until then, nothing has happened. Aspirants who practice day and night and do not achieve anything are just like ignorant worldly persons bound up in saṁsāra. The reality of the self only exists when you are filled with the independent state of supreme God consciousness (caitanya). Until then, everything is useless and worthless.
So, there are not individual states of being, there is only the universal state of being, and that is one. This is why, in the very first verse, the author has explained that God consciousness is one in many.
Now we can explain this verse another way. When a master teaches his disciples by asking them, “Who is the self?” the disciples reply by saying, “The body is not the self, the breath is not the self, the intellect is not the self, voidness is not the self, this universe is not the self, the tradition of the atheists is not the self, the tradition of the Vedas is not the self, the tradition of the Buddhists is not the self and the Mādhyamika school of Buddhism is not the self.” Then the master asks, “What is self?” And he answers his own question by saying, “Independent supreme God consciousness is the self and nothing else.”
The independent state of God consciousness is also found in the individual states of body (śarīra), breath (prāṇa), intellect (buddhi) and void (śūnya). In the body, he is above the body. In breath, he is above the breath. In intellect, he is the super intellect. In voidness, he is full. In nothingness, he is everything. This is the reality of universal I (aham).
Mṛityuñjidbhaṭṭāraka also gives the same exposition of the self:
This independent supreme state of God consciousness is the nature of the self, which is found in every śāstra. It is the reality of the supreme self (paramātman). Beyond all coverings, it is fully exposed.
The Vijñāna Bhairava says the same thing.
In each and every being exists the independent state of God consciousness. You must find this state of God consciousness. To accomplish this, concentrate on the totality of individuality, the state of universal consciousness. If this is done, you will conquer the differentiated state of world and will be carried above the individuality of consciousness. (Vijñāna Bhairava 100)
This is also expressed by Vasugupta in two verses of the Spanda Kārikā:
If, through deep meditation, you examine the classes and activities of organs known as the organs of cognition and the organs of action, you will find in them the supreme independent state of God consciousness. (Spanda Kārikā 1.6, 1.7)
Kṣemarāja now gives another exposition of this first sūtra. He says that, in the verse, the word ātmā means “form.” Thus the meaning is: “This supreme independent state of God consciousness (caitanya) is the form.” But the author has not revealed whose form. He simply says that this supreme independent state of God consciousness is form. If it is not said whose form it is, you must conclude that this is the form of everything. So, the independent supreme state of God consciousness is the form of everything. It is the form of the nose, it is the form of the eye, it is the form of the face, it is the form of the arm, it is the form of the limbs. And even more than that: It is the form of an animal, such as a sheep; it is the form of a tree; it is the form of everything in this world.
The independent state of God consciousness is not only the form of the existing world, it is also the form of the nonexistent world. In the nonexistent world, you find the milk of a bird. Have you ever seen the milk of a bird? Of course not! But the milk of a bird also exists in the supreme independent state of God consciousness. Why? Because it can be thought. You can think of the milk of a bird. So, anything that can be thought exists. Although it may be nonexistent, it exists in the supreme independent state of God consciousness.
The formulation of the milk of a bird would never occur if it did not exist in consciousness. But it does exist in consciousness, and it can be conceived in thought. So formulations such as the son or daughter of a barren woman exist in the supreme independent state of God consciousness. Kṣemarāja, therefore, concludes that nonexistent things also exist in God consciousness.
This is so because of the process of thinking. Thinking takes place in our intellect. That intellect exists in our consciousness and that individual consciousness exists in the supreme state of God consciousness. So everything exists. Whatever you think exists and whatever you do not think also exists.
How can these objects exist without the knowers of these objects? It is because of the knowers of these objects that these objects exist. So, the knower and the known are one. And it follows that there is nothing right and there is nothing wrong. Everything is filled with God consciousness. Whatever you do is divine and whatever you do not do is divine as well. Whatever you commit is divine, and whatever you do not commit is also divine. The individual being is filled with the universal state of being.
The independent supreme state of God consciousness is the formation of the universe. Therefore, how can you choose some means out of all the universe for its realization? If you choose some means from the universe, that too is that which is meant. Therefore, whatever means you select, say, prāṇāyāma, dhāraṇā, dhyāna, or samādhi6 such a way is filled with God consciousness. Therefore, that is not actually means, that is, in reality, meant. That is the end, not the means to that end. So, there is no choosing various means, there is no process, there is no sādhanā.
If, for the time being, you declare that things are not filled with God consciousness, even then they are dependent on the supreme state of God consciousness. They cannot be known, they cannot exist, unless they are found and realized in the supreme universal state of God consciousness. And the supreme state of God consciousness can never be covered by anything. Why? Because the covering cannot exist without supreme God consciousness.
It is also said in the revered scripture Ucchaṣma Bhairava:
You must know that the state of independent supreme God consciousness is existing in the same way, beyond your individual state, as your shadow exists. Although you try to cross it and overtake it with your footsteps, you will never succeed. It cannot be overtaken just as the head cannot be in place of the foot.
This means that the supreme state of God consciousness can never be realized by any separate means; it can only be realized by the means that is filled with God consciousness. So then there is no need to realize anything; it is already realized. Just as one’s shadow can never be overtaken, the supreme state of independent God consciousness can never become objective. It is never found, it is never realized. Why? Because it is the state of the finder, the state of the realizer.
In Spanda, it is revealed in these verses:
In which state this whole universe is existing, that is in the real sense the reality of being. (Spanda Kārikā 1.2, 1.5)
It is concluded, therefore, that the supreme reality of Śaṅkara’s7 consciousness is that it is in a state of movement. It is not fixed or situated in any one place. It is located everywhere. Wherever there is space, it is there. Wherever there is not space, it is there. It is in space and beyond it.
If Paramaśiva is the formation of the whole universe, which is filled with both animate and inanimate objects the very nature of which is caitanya, then where can bondage exist? Actually, there can be no bondage. Bondage is not found anywhere! In this second sūtra, the author, in joining and separating the first two sūtras “caitanyaṁ ātmā” and “jñānaṁ bandhaḥ” by uniting the letter a and not uniting it, answers the question “Where can bondage exist?”


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