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帖子发表于 : 2007年 7月 16日 周一 2:40 pm 
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第一段

一九八二年二月廿六日讲于美国夏威夷大学

  观世音菩萨宏愿解脱一切众生的痛苦。自古以来,在世界各地,有数不清的 灵感奇迹,都和观音有关。因为观世音菩萨和这世界上的人类,有这样深厚密切 的缘份,所以效仿观世音菩萨的修行方法,最易得到感应和成就。

  在《楞严经》里,有一段极重要的经文,是记载观世音菩萨自己讲述他修行 的方法及经过。这是在一次法会上,二十五位大菩萨遵照释迦牟尼佛的咐嘱,讲 述每个人的修行经验。二十五位讲完之后,释迦佛叫文殊师利菩萨作一个总结。 在文殊师利的结论中,他指出:对这个世界上的人而言,观世音菩萨以耳根修禅 定的法门为最契机。因为这个原因,所以我选了这个题目,希望各位都能获益。

  在讨论观音菩萨的修法之前,将若干有关联的佛陀教示温习一下,也许可以 帮助各位的了解。

  佛法的目的是解除众生的苦痛。佛说:人生的一切苦痛,都是因妄想执着而 来,而妄想执着则是从我们的攀缘心所产生。

  什么是攀缘心呢?

  攀缘心这个“缘”字是指人的一切感觉的对象,诸如五官所接触、领会到的 外界的山河大地形形色色,及脑筋里面所生起的一切思想、意见及知识都包括在 内。“攀”的意思即是执着,抓住不放。所以,攀缘心者,是我们人类“见物即 执着”的心理状态。不但执着,而且相信这种现象是真实的。

  这种执着,即是妄想执着。因为这种妄想执着,妄生分别,认妄作真,所以 生出贪


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第二段

  观世音菩萨说:

  “初于闻中”,是说:“我在修行的初期,运用听觉。”这里我要请各位特别注意,在这修行的初期,观世音菩萨也和我们一样:一、有“我”的强烈观念;二、知道运用“闻性”;三、有“闻”及“听”的作用;及四、听到“声音”,譬如上面所讲的潮声。为什么我在此处要强调观世音在修行的初期,也像我们凡夫一样,有“我”、“闻性”、“闻”、“听”及“声”等妄想执着呢?这是因为要反映以后观世音怎样逐一消除这种妄想执着。

  上面已说过,观世音是在海滩边修禅定的,因听潮声的来去,悟到声音在闻性中刹那生灭,并非永久的、实有的;而人之妄想烦恼,却都因执着这声音而来。所以,观世音采用“入流亡所”的方法,使声音不再成为烦恼的根源。

  “入流亡所”(注二)应该分开来研究,现在我们先讨论“入流”。“入”是佛法中的一个专有名词,是表示人的各器官与外界接触的现象。所以,佛法中有所谓“六入”,那是眼、耳、鼻、舌、身五外部器官与外界的接触,及脑意识与外界思想的接触的总称。此处的“入”则是“耳入”,是外界的波动震着耳膜,使人发生有声音的感觉的现象。

  “流”的意义是“不住”。《金刚经》里常提到“不住色生心,不住声、香、味、触、法生心。”“不住”即是说不要将“入”留停下来,要让它一接“即流”。所以,观世音所说的“入流”,即是《金刚经》中的“不住声生心”。

  再说得详细些,“入流”就是说不要停留每一个因耳朵与外界接触所感到的单独的声音(单音),而要让每个单音像流水般的继续不绝的流去。这句话听上去好像很容易,实则很难。我们人的毛病,就是在留住这种单音,而将它们连贯起来,于是组成名词,连成句子,产生意义;妄想执着由此而生,烦恼苦痛由此而来。各位不信,让我们来试一试。

  现在我请任何一位在座发三个单音,各位听着。

  “观”。──“世”。──“音”。──

  现在我问:“各位听到了什么?”很多人回答:“观世音”。诸位答“观世音”的,就没有做到“入流”。因为你们没有让“观”“世”“音”三个单音一“入”即“流”,而是将这三个单音都留住下来,连贯了起来,组成“观世音”这个名词;并且很多位的脑子里,将平时所知关于观世音菩萨的都连想了起来,这就是妄想执着啊!各位,不论“观世音”这个名词是好或坏,它一样妄想执着。所以,要去掉妄想执着,就得“入流”。

  这样一试,各位也许反过来要说,那倒真不容易,人的脑子中就有这么的机能,将单音留住下来,连贯起来,叫我们怎能“不住”而让它“流”呢?这话也不尽然,我们仔细想一想,“入流”也并不这么难。此刻各位的耳朵和外界接触而产生的音声实在多得很:有汽车经过的声音,有小孩在外面吵闹的声音,有邻座呼吸的声音,还有很多其他的声音,可是各位很自然地将这些声音都“流”而“不住”。所“不流”的,只是我在讲的声音。为什么呢?因为各位在注意我讲的话,要想知道我在说些什么,因此不让这些“入”流去,而将这些“入”留住,因此就听见我的话,也因此就产生许多思想上的反应。又譬如你听到的三个单音,如果各位不将它们留住,每个单音都任它一触即流,单独的一个“观”声,一个“世”声,或一个“音”声,都产生不出观世音这个名词及因之而有的一切意义。各位自己可以将这个道理推而广之,自会觉得“入流”这个办法,确是很妙。

  “亡所”的亡是“亡失”、“消除”的意思;“所”是所听到的对象及因听到而引起的一切对象的简称。在佛学经书里,常提到“能”、“所”两个名词。“能”是指能起此作用的主体,譬如能听的我、能看的我。“所”是指此作用所及的对象,譬如所听到的声音、所看到的色彩。世界上有许多现象,都由此相对的“能、所”观念造成,是妄想执着的主要形态。所以,“亡所”是说在修行中“亡失了听到的对象及因此对象而产生的一切对象。”让我来举一个例子:

  记得有一次有一位居士说:“地下车(指纽约的Subway)的声音真闹,一坐进地下车,就被乱哄哄的闹声弄得心烦。”当我们分析这句话的时候,就会发现下列的层次:

1. 坐进地下车,耳朵与外界接触(“入”)。
2. 将每个单音留住了下来(不流而住),乃发觉有声音(听到的对象── 这是第一个“所”)。
3. 这声音是轰轰轰的(单音连贯起来,造成有意义的对象──这是第二个 “所”)。
4. 这轰轰的声音是地下车的声音(联想起其他的对象──这是第三个 “所”)。
5. 地下车的闹声真烦心(又联想起以往的经验,引起烦心的对象──这是 第四个“所”)。

  现在让我们将这些对象一层层的反推回去。

1. 尽管知道是地下车的闹声,但不去联想起以往因听到地下车闹声而烦心 的经验──“亡”第四个“所”。
2. 尽管听到轰轰的声音,但不去管它是飞机的轰轰声呢,还是地下车的轰 轰声,还是其他的轰轰声──“亡”第三个“所”。
3. 尽管听到有声音,可是不去分别它是轰轰声呢,还是吱吱声,还是其他 各种的声音──“亡”第二个“所”。
4. 每个单音,任它一触即流(入流),不予留住连贯,闻性中不起有声音 的感觉──“亡”第一个“所”。
  到此阶段,所有的“所”──对象,都已亡失,此种境界,便是“入流亡所”。

  各位现在明白了“入流亡所”的整个意义。观世音菩萨在他修行的初期,即是用的这个方法:在闻性中,耳入不住,亡失对象。

Part II

Kuan-yin begins his discourse by saying: "First, I (concentrated) on the audial consciousness" which means "during the first stage of meditation, using my hearing." Here, special attention should be paid to the fact that the Bodhisattva Kuan-yin began his cultivation of realization at the level of an ordinary human being. He had a strong sense of self, of an 'I.' Second, he possessed the innate nature to hear. Third, both his audial consciousness and hearing were unimpaired. Fourth, he heard sounds, such as the sound of the tide mentioned above. We all possess these faculties and the delusions associated with them. This is significant, because in the course of this discussion we will see how Kuan-yin progressed from his ordinary state and proceeded to eradicate his deluded attachments one by one.

As I mentioned above, Kuan-yin practiced meditation by the sea. By listening to the coming and going of the sound of the tide, he realized that sound is neither permanent nor substantial, but arises and ceases momentarily within the field created by one's innate nature to hear. Nonetheless, one becomes attached to sounds, and as a result, delusion arises. Therefore, by allowing the sounds that contacted the ear to flow off, and thereby being detached from the object sound, Kuan-yin was able to eliminate the delusion that has its origin in sound.

"Allowed the sounds that were contacting the ear to flow off, and thus audial objects subsided and were lost" has two aspects that require study. First, we will examine "allowed the sounds that contacted the ear to flow off." This refers to 'entering,' a Buddhist technical term that denotes contact between a sense organ and its object in the external environment. The contacts of the five physical sense organs (i.e., eye, ear, nose, tongue, and skin) with their respective objects and of the mind with the world of thoughts and ideas are termed the 'six entrances' in Buddhism. The entrance we are considering here is that of the ear, and entering in this case is the arising of the sensation of sound when the vibrations of an external source reach the eardrum.

The meaning of 'flow off' is not grasping, not abiding. In the Diamond Sutra it says:"...not arousing one's mind by abiding in sound, smell, taste, touch, or mental objects..." Here not abiding means that one does not linger on the sensation but rather allows the stream of consciousness to continue to flow freely even after contact is made with the object. Thus, Kuan-yin's phrase "allowed the sounds that contacted the ear to flow off' has exactly the same meaning as does "not arousing one's mind by abiding in sound" in the language of the Diamond Sutra.

To be precise, 'allowing to flow' means that one does not cling to every single sound heard by the ear in contact with the external world. One should allow each sound to pass away, like water flowing in a stream. This is easy enough to say, but it is quite a feat to accomplish. Our difficulty lies in the fact that we have an established habit whereby we catch hold of single sounds, string them together to form words and sentences, and then impart meanings to them. From this process, deluded attachments, turbulent emotions, and sufferings arise. We can confirm this by means of a simple experiment:

Let someone produce a sequence of single syllables, for example: KUAN SHIH YIN. Now if you were asked what you heard, you might very well reply, "Kuan-shih-yin." Such a response would indicate that at the time you heard those syllables you had not allowed each of the syllables 'kuan' and 'shih' and 'yin' to flow on after entering; you retained them all, strung them together, and made up the word 'Kuan-shih-yin.' You might also associate everything you have ever heard about Bodhisattva Kuan-shih-yin with these sounds. This exemplifies deluded attachment. It does not matter at all whether 'Kuan-shih-yin' is a good or bad term, deluded attachment is deluded attachment all the same. Therefore, in order to get rid of deluded attachments one must allow any and every single sound to flow off.

At this point one might object to all this with the idea that it is just not possible for us to allow sounds to flow without abiding. It would seem that our brains are constructed in such a way as to make us automatically string monosyllables together. This, however, is not entirely true. If we consider this carefully, we will find that allowing sounds to flow is not at all impossible.

At any one moment our ears are in contact with many external sounds: sounds of passing vehicles, of children calling to one another and crying, of someone next to us breathing, and so forth. Usually, we naturally allow these sounds to flow without abiding. Right now, you are probably allowing many sounds to flow, but not the sounds of the words I am speaking. This is because you are paying attention to them, for you desire to know what my talk is getting at. Thus in this case, my words are the sound objects that you do not let flow. You cling to my words. This permits you to understand what is being said and to form mental responses. On the other hand, if you were to desist from this and just allow each syllable to flow, you would not be able to put together words and sentences. You would not have grasped the term 'Kuan-shih-yin' in the example given before, nor would you have grasped the meaning of that term. The results of practicing the allowing-to-flow method, when extended to all perception, can lead to some very profound realizations.

To proceed with Kuan-yin's account, we may next consider the word 'lost' in the phrase "the audial object subsided and was lost." This refers to the elimination of any consciousness of the object. 'Audial object' means the sound heard, or anything that becomes an object of one's hearing. In Chinese Buddhist texts one often comes across two terms which mean 'capability' and 'object.' Specifically, 'capability' refers to the ability to perform subjective functions, as in the statement "I who am capable of hearing," or "I who am capable of seeing." The 'object' is the object of this capability, the sound that is heard, or the color that is seen. Many phenomena result from this dichotomy, which is the primary form of deluded attachment. Therefore, becoming detached from the object is to become detached from the object of hearing and all other objects that arise in connection with the object of hearing. This may be illustrated with an example:

A person once said to me: "The New York subway is so noisy that whenever I board a train my mind is disturbed by the rumbling sound." An analysis of this sentence reveals the following sequence of events:

1. He boards the subway train, and his ears make contact with sounds.
2. He retains every single sound (i.e., he does not allow the sounds to flow off, but grasps at them) and perceives noise. This is the first object of hearing.
3. Stringing all the sounds together, he determines that the noise is a rumble. This is the second object.
4. He identifies the rumble as the sound being made by the subway train - the third object.
5. Because of past associations and present conceptualization he determines that the rumbling sound of the subway is a disturbance. This is the fourth object.

Now let us reverse the order and remove attachment to the objects one by one:

1. Recognizing the rumble of the subway one refrains from associating it with the past experiences that cause one to regard it as a disturbance. This is detachment from the fourth object.
2. Recognizing a rumble, one refrains from determining whether it is the rumble of a train, plane, or something else. This is detachment from the third object.
3. Perceiving noise, one refrains from judging it to be a rumble, squeak, or other sound. This is detachment from the second object.
4. Immediately after making contact with individual sounds one allows them to flow off - one refrains from retaining the sounds and stringing them together to form the sensation of sound in the audio-consciousness that is grounded in the nature to hear. Thus, one becomes detached from the first object.

When we reach this stage, we have become detached from all the objects. This is what is meant by allowing sounds to flow off and losing the object.

Now you know the entire meaning of the statement "I (concentrated) on the audial consciousness, allowed the sounds that were contacting (the ear) to flow off, and thus audial objects subsided and were lost." This was the method employed by Kuan-yin during the first stage of his cultivation of realization. By not allowing sounds which enter through the ear to abide in the audial consciousness, one becomes detached from the object of hearing at once. Therefore audial objects subside and are lost.


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第三段

  观世音接下去说:“所入既寂,动静二相,了然不生。”

  这三句是说因“入流亡所”的不断训练,功夫渐深,在闻性中此时已没有任何可听的对象(“所已寂”),也没有了耳根和外界接触的现象(“入已寂”);闻性中清清净净,但并不昏沉或木然而无知觉(因此说“了然”)。此时感觉到的,是既没有动的形相(声因动而来),也没有“静”的形相(与动相对的静)。在这个阶段,已经是“定”的境界了。不过“定”有程度的深浅,要一层层的深入,现在还只能说是初定的境界。在这境界中,前面指出的五项妄想执着── “我”、“闻性”、“闻”、“听”及“声”,还只能说是去掉了“声”及“听”。可是因为去掉了“声”“听”这两种妄想执着,人类的许多苦痛,已经可以减去很多。世人能到此境界,已能够有很多快乐自在的受用。这时候佛陀所教的“不要攀缘”可以说已经达到,接下去是要“集中心力来观照宇宙人生的真相”。观世音到此境界,并不停止,而是努力深入推究,使“定”的程度日益加深,所以说:

  如是渐增

  讲到此处,我想说一个寓言。因为在这以前的修行境界,有很多位可能已经达到。但自此以后,则都是定中用功夫,不容易为一般人所了解。先说一个寓言,不但希望增加各位的兴趣,也藉此说明我本人的立场。

  各位知道青蛙在他生足之前,只能在水中生活,要等长大,足生出来后,方能到岸上去。有一天一只母蛙从岸滩上回来,对一群


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如何在观“音”之时离止攀缘心?


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